It is well-known, but bears repeating: Romania not only came late in the wave of communist regime collapse in the East European members of the Warsaw Pact in the fall of Poland, Hungary, the GDR, Czechoslovakia, Bulgariait came last—and inevitably that was significant.
Le pass sanitaire - Marion Albouy - CCL Covid
Despite the more highly personalist vs. Despite the differences, there simply were too many institutional and ideological similarities, or as is often most importantly the case, that is how members of both the state and society interpreted matters.
- Aloe pentru fata de la riduri
- Masca illumi anti imbatranire
- И Эмбриобанк.
Much of the debate about what happened in December has revolved around how to define those events…and their consequences.
But Romanian citizens and foreign observers have long since improvised linguistically to capture the hybrid and unclear nature of the events and their consequences.
Gratuitement cet été. Lettre d information bimestrielle ROUMANIE L'aventure en valait la peine Les Nouvelles de Roumanie cessent donc leur parution, sous leur forme imprimée actuelle, avec ce numéromais leur version numérique, à laquelle les lecteurs peuvent s'abonner dès maintenant, prendra le relais dès la rentrée.
The following characterization of what happened in December comes from an online poster, Florentin, who was stationed at the Targoviste barracks—the exact location where Nicolae and Elena Ceausescu would be summarily tried and executed on 25 December Romanian Socialist Republic died, but in parallel a revolution took place.
Out of this situation has transpired all the confusion. As far as I know this might be a unique historical case, if I am not mistaken.
- Piele uscată sub ochi riduri ce să faci
- Cea mai buna crema de fata peste 40 ani
- Октопауки не смогли спрятать его, - проговорил Макс.
People went into the streets, calling not just for the downfall of the president then, but for the change of the political regime, and that is what we call a revolution. This revolution triumphed, because today we have neither communism, nor even neocommunism with a human face.
The European Union would not have accepted a communist state among its ranks. Some talk about the stealing of the revolution, but the reality is that we live in capitalism, even if what we have experienced in these years has been more an attempt at capitalism, orchestrated by an oligarchy with diverse interests… This is indeed the great and perhaps tragic irony of what happened in December in Romania: without the Revolution, the Coup might well have failed, but without the Coup, neither would the Revolution have succeeded.
The latter is particularly difficult for the rigidly ideological and politically partisan to accept; yet it is more than merely a talking point and legitimating alibi of the second-rung nomenklatura who seized power although it is that too.
The very atomization of Romanian society that had been fueled and exploited by the Ceausescu regime explained why Romania came last in the wave of Fallbut also why it was and would have been virtually impossible for genuine representatives of society—led by dissidents and protesters—to form an alternative governing body on 22 December whose decisions would have been accepted as sufficiently authoritative to be respected and implemented by the rump party-state bureaucracy, especially the armed forces and security and police structures.
The chaos that would have ensued—with likely multiple alternative power centers, including geographically—would have likely led to a far greater death toll and could have enabled those still betting on the return of the Ceausescus to after a time reconquer power or seriously impede the functioning of any new government rapatriement sanitaire suisse anti aging an extended period. The fact that the Revolution enabled the coup plotters to seize power, and reglementation pneu hiver suisse anti aging the coup enabled the Revolution to triumph should be identified as yet another version—one particular to the idiosyncracies of the Romanian communist regime—of what Linz and Stepan have identified as the costs or compromises of the transition from authoritarian rule.
In Romania, this meant that second-rung nomenklaturists—a displaced generation of elites eager to finally have their day in the sun—who to a large extent still harbored only Gorbachevian perestroikist views of the changes in the system as being necessary, were able to consolidate power following the elimination of the ruling Ceausescu couple.
It also seems difficult to defend objectively as a legitimate description, since even according to their own accounts, senior Front officials had been in contact with one another and discussed overthrowing the Ceausescus prior to the Revolution, since there had existed no real competing non-Ceausescu regime alternative on 22 December an argument they themselves makeand since they had clearly not been elected to office.
As to the question of the ideological character of the revolt against Ceausescu, it is once again instructive to turn to what a direct participant, in this case in the Timisoara protests, has to say about it.
To this must be added what is little talked about or acknowledged as such today: the counter-revolution of December Prior to 22 Decemberthe primary target of this repression was society, peaceful demonstrators—although the Army itself was both perpetrator of this repression but also the target of Securitate forces attempting to ensure their loyalty to the regime and their direct participation and culpabilization in the repression of demonstrators.
After 22 Decemberthe primary target of this violence was the Army and civilians who had picked up weapons, rather than citizens at large.
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It is probably justified to say that in terms of tactics, after 22 Decemberthe actions of Ceausist forces were counter-coup in nature, contingencies prepared in the event of an Army defection and the possibility of foreign intervention in support of such a defection.
If indeed the plotters had not been able to effectively seize power after the Ceausescus fled on 22 December and Ceausescu or his direct acolytes had been able to recapture power, we would be talking of the success not of a counter-coup, but of the counter-revolution. It is necessary for us to regroup in the democratic circles of the PCR—the inheritor of the noble ideas of the people of which we are a part!
Urmarind adnotarile concise ale acestui jurnal de operatiuni din Garnizoana Constanta, va veti da seama, fara doar si poate, ca a fost un veritabil procedeu de intoxicare cu stiri false, menite sa creeze panica si deruta, chiar si sau, mai ales in randul fortelor militare de aparare. Cine a dirijat acest razboi surd si cu ce interese? Ora
We ourselves can see this, because our radio searching and locating units which were in Hungary a few days ago were monitoring broadcasts from 31 Securitate radio centers—yesterday 19, and today only 5. We of course put this data at the disposal of the Romanian military leadership.
Felszámolásuk érdekében rapatriement sanitaire suisse anti aging Magyar Honvédség speciális képzettségu rádióbemérő egységeinek egy részét átcsoportosítottuk a román államhatár közelébe, s így sikerült rádióállomásaikat bemérni, álláshelyeiket pontosan meghatározni. Rapatriement sanitaire suisse anti aging adatok átadásával jelentősen elősegítettük a Securitate-bázisok felszámolását. Egy volt miniszter emlékezése Ezeknek az adatoknak az átadásával, az adók bemért földrajzi helyeinek megjelölésével feltehetően segítséget nyújtott a Magyar Néphadsereg a Securitate-bázisok felszámolásában, megsemmisítésében.
Szinte napról napra érzékelhető volt ezek számának csökkenése, ami a magyar szakértők szerint arról tanúskodott, hogy a diktátorhoz hű erők törzseit a román hadsereg folyamatosan számolja fel. Ezt példázza, hogy a december án nyilvánosságra hozottak szerint én még 31, én már 19 és án csupán öt Securitate-rádióközpont működését rögzítették és mérték be a magyar rádiófelderítő és bemérő alegységek.
The context makes clear these were Securitate helicopters crema antirid lierac the service of the Romanian secret police, the Securitate, and Nicolae Ceausescu.
- Обращаться в мыслях к бесконечному я могу лишь конечный отрезок времени.
- Что ты делала.