Publicaţia de faţă reflectă numai punctul de vedere al autorilor şi Comisia Europeană nu este responsabilă pentru eventuala utilizare a informaţiilor pe care le conţine. Having observed sharing consular service delivery practice of the EU, the author suggests implementation of effective norms in the practice of CIS. Today s consular offices are operating in a rapidly changing world and the demand for effective consular services is growing with a high tempo.
There are several overlapping factors, which are the main reasons for rising demand. First, it is the growing number of travelers and expatriates.
For example, according to the information of the Economist, more than 50 million citizens of China and more than 22 million of Indian citizens live abroad. In the number of Australian travelers has reached 7. As a result of the growing number of travelers the governments face difficulties in ensuring appropriate assistance for their citizens.
Moreover, nowadays the most part of travelers go to countries with highrisk environment. The complexity of consular cases has increased correspondingly, for example by multiple citizenship 2 increase and new types of travel such as medical tourism, child abduction across legal systems and transnational terrorism.
The above mentioned factors have played a big role in the transformation of consular functions and the growth of the demand in effective consular services. At the same time it is noteworthy that the 1 G. Haynal, M. Welsh, L. Century, S. Faist, J. Dual Citizenship in an Age of Mobility, on the trend of increasing tolerance of dual citizenship. The abovementioned challenges and transformation of consular functions are calcul chomage frontalier suisse anti aging also for the member states of the Commonwealth of Independent States CISwhich was established after the collapse of the Soviet Union in accordance with an Agreement on creation of the CIS, dated 8 December calcul chomage frontalier suisse anti aging Protocol to the above Agreement dated 21 December Uzbekistan considers the CIS as a coordinating mechanism for multiaspect interaction and a platform for direct communication and interstate dialogue, including bilateral contacts within the CIS, the Heads of states and relevant authorities, and also as the entity of sovereign states motivated to create conditions for multilateral cooperation.
Moreover, Uzbekistan considers that in a fast changing world the CIS remains the needed interstate entity that serves as a platform to conduct regular negotiations, to maintain political dialogue, first of all on high level, and to agree positions aimed at responding to new produse anti-imbatranire pentru ten gras hghg and threats, as well as to focus on various urgent global security issues 1.
For the past period within the CIS there was created a comprehensive legal basis and developed instruments and mechanisms of interaction that cover many essentials for participating states areas, including the cooperation in the field of consular affairs, which gave birth to several multilateral treaties on consular affairs adopted in the framework of the organization.
Among them there are the Agreement on visa-free travel of the CIS Member States citizens to the territory of its Member Statesthe Agreement on mutual recognition of visas of the CIS Member Statesthe Convention on legal assistance and legal relations in civil, mizon s venin syn ake cremă antirid and criminal mattersthe Agreement crema cu propolis forever simplified procedure of citizenship acquisitionthe Agreement on cooperation of the CIS Member States in fight against illegal migration and others.
Moreover, the CIS has served as an effective platform in concluding bilateral consular conventions among its Member States. During its regular meetings the Council discusses wide range of issues and most of them relate to further development of the existing legal basis of cooperation. Unfortunately, the most part of the legal framework of consular cooperation in the framework of the CIS do not address the new challenges and threats.
The changing environment of consular functions and rising demand for effective consular service require a broad range of cooperation in this field.
The most part of CIS member states are not represented in all parts of the world by diplomatic missions, except the Russian Federation. In this regard, it is very difficult for them to provide consular protection to their citizens located in those countries, where they do not have a diplomatic representation. Globalization processes, growth of welfare and development of business ties have given an impetus to the growth of number of travelers in CIS countries.
Accordingly we are witnessing a growing demand for effective consular services in the Member States. In order to propose an optimal solution of effective consular protection in the framework of the CIS, it is necessary to observe the new measures being adopted by other states.
Among them it is the consular cooperation with other governments on bilateral and multilateral level. Absence of effective steps in the modification of the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations based on the new global challenges and threats has given a new impulse for the development of consular relations on bilateral and regional-multilateral level.
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One of the new trends in this direction is the agreements on sharing of consular service delivery. The legal foundation for consular sharing agreements is found in Article 8 of the VCCR, which authorizes states to exercise consular functions in the receiving State on behalf of a third State 1. In this context it is important to note that such kind of agreements 1 G.
An example is the Commonwealth states, where the UK carries out consular functions for other Commonwealth states in the absence of consulates of those states 1. Another example is the consular protection practice of the European Union.
I à XII Les élections générales et le nouveau gouvernement Lettre d information bimestrielle La Roumanie change de Président mais garde le cap Avant de prêter serment sur la Bible, le Président Ion Iliescu a prononcé son discours d investiture devant le Parlement. Il existe deux manières d'interpréter les résultats des récentes élections roumaines. Brutale, en considérant que près d'un électeur sur deux ne s'est pas dérangé pour aller voter, manifestant ainsi le peu d'estime qu'il portait à la classe politique. Quand à ceux qui se sont déplacés lors du premier tour, les deux tiers d'entre eux ont déposé dans l'urne un bulletin en faveur d'un ancien communiste ou d'un extrémiste. L'autre est beaucoup plus nuancée et même porteuse de promesses.
It is a very unique practice, which further develops the consular relations and contributes to effective consular services. Despite that EU consular protection practice is strongly interconnected with the institute of EU citizenship, which was established by the Article 8 of the Maastricht Treaty, it has worked out effective instruments for sharing consular service delivery, which could be successfully implemented as a model in different parts of the world.
Implementation of a new legal framework has played a great role in further development of EU consular protection practice.
The Lisbon Treaty takes account of the increased need for a European dimension to consular protection; it reinforces and clarifies the capacity of the Union to act. The right of unrepresented EU citizens to enjoy protection by the consular and diplomatic authorities of other Member States on the same conditions as nationals of calcul chomage frontalier suisse anti aging state is enshrined in Articles 20 2 c and 23 TFEU and Article 46 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union 2.
Under the previous legal regime Member States were to establish the necessary rules among themselves. The Lisbon Treaty abandons the previous logic of intergovernmental sui generis decisionmaking. In the rest of third countries a great deal of EU citizens are unrepresented. Protection covers everyday situations like stolen passports, serious accidents or illnesses or consequences after violent crimes 1.
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For that purpose the Member States should reexamine the existing legal framework, regulating consular cooperation and adopt new multilateral treaties that would meet the new challenges and growing demand for effective consular service.
Bibliography: 1. Consular protection of European citizens: Towards an effective consular protection system for the citizens of European Union abroad, 3. Faist Th. Dual Citizenship in an Age of Mobility. Consular protection of European citizens: Towards an effective consular protection system for the citizens of European Union abroad.
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