Criticism on Lord of the Flies 1. Allegory and symbol 1.
The Self in sacred and literary texts 1. Conclusion to Chapter 1 Chapter 2: Leadership and personal development 2. Conch and conflict 2. Conclusion to Chapter 2 Chapter 3: Salvation — a personal affair 3. The beast and the circle 3.
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The myth of the Self 3. Conclusion to Chapter 3 Conclusion Bibliography Introduction Lord of the Flies is an intriguing novel about the way a group of boys struggle to survive on a desert island. Survival is treated here both as a matter of staying alive and of maintaining a logical or a sane connection with reality. The new environment is unfamiliar to the boys as far as their personal history is concerned, but, as time goes by, they adapt to it in becoming comparable to savages.
On the island, there is no material civilization; there are no social or cultural institutions and no adults to enforce rules upon the children and to punish them.
Consequently, they must not only make the things they need, but they must also rely on their own judgement. There arise a number of questions: first of all, what does Lord of the Flies symbolize, from a psychological point of view?
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What does the novel symbolize? What is human nature like? Where does evil originate? Is man capable of becoming aware of his inner evil?
If he does, how does he deal with this knowledge? I have chosen this perspective because the path to it has been hinted at by literary critics, but only the archetypes of the shadow and of the persona in the novel have been analyzed, while the archetype of the Self, which encompasses them, has not been discussed. I think that the most appropriate way to analyze psychic transformation is comparison.
On the one hand, this confirmed his hypothesis of the universal nature of archetypes. On the other hand it gave him a more comprehensive set of examples to offer to the general public in explaining his findings, at the numerous public conferences that he took part in. Therefore, literary texts are of interest for him as long as they contain occurrences of archetypes, which provide information on the structure and dynamics of the human psyche.
The way they relate to the archetype of the Self is the following: as far as leadership is concerned, it may be said that it is one of the appropriate circumstances in which the Self can become manifest.
The figure of authority, like the king or the prince, is a symbol of the Self, Jung, Arhetipurile Moreover, these two instantiations of the Self share with it not only the power of authority, but also the ability to adjust things and to see that the rashness of passionate nature is controlled Jung, Arhetipurile 43 —4. The symbols of the Self do not include only types of leaders, but also the figure of the convention dassistance administrative suisse anti aging Wehr As for salvation, it is what the boys need convention dassistance administrative suisse anti aging their psychological survival, for they are prey to the misperception and bewilderment caused by the beast.
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Salvation is regarded here both as recovery from the consequences of ignorance and as deliverance of the soul from the aloe vera pe fata of absolute evil. As Jung says, it is only the lack of deliverance that generates a longing for the Saviour Arhetipurile The Saviour is the one who helps consciousness free itself from the prison of the unconscious, and this is why he is said to be an enlightener Jung, Arhetipurile The shadow, be it personal or collective, contains within itself the possibility for good Jung, Arhetipurile Jung believed that a comprehensive image of the psyche must include both good and evil, convention dassistance administrative suisse anti aging that these two are dependant upon each other Arhetipurile One of the reasons why both good and evil are to be included in the image of the Saviour is that, in order to heal the wounds of the ones whom he means to save, he himself must be wounded Jung, Arhetipurile This analysis is focused on the psychological symbolism of the work, which may go beyond what the author could have imagined.
The first chapter provides a brief introduction to the critical framework on which the analysis is based, mentioning the opinions of literary critics who have interpreted Lord of the Flies at various moments in time, as well as my comments on what these critics have found in the novel. The chapter goes on by presenting the Jungian judgement on literary works, and by setting the conditions under which such a critical perspective may apply to the chosen novel.
Definitions of the most important Jungian terms for the present analysis are included at the end of the chapter, as well as a short list of the occurrences of the archetype of the Self in sacred and literary texts.
These texts show that, irrespective of its form or symbols, the Self holds as essential features its being formed of multiple opposites, which generates a state of conflict, and the search for union. The second chapter draws on the differences between the two leaders of the boys, Ralph and Jack, in their social interaction and from the point of view of their reactions to the Self. Leadership is an appropriate reference from the Jungian perspective.
Robert J. In my opinion, leadership is tightly connected to the archetype of the Self, for it implies determination serving a purpose that comes from within while Arborele anti-îmbătrânire ecologic elvețian it to the conditions that reality offers.
This latter issue is, according to Golding, the basis of the shape of society cited in Hollinger 4. The third chapter focuses on the great differences between and the shared characteristics of two important myths of mankind, the Christian myth and the myth of the Self, represented by Simon and Ralph, respectively. Although they stand for different perspectives on the psyche, both boys personify a symbol of the Self: if Ralph is the image of the leader, being directly involved in the social life, Simon resembles Jesus Christ and is associated to the most profound meaning of salvation.
Chapter 1 Professing art is a psychological activity Convention dassistance administrative suisse anti aging, Despre fenomenul spiritului 67 1. One of the earlier critics of the Semiconductori elvețieni anti-îmbătrânire is Frederick R. Karl, who strongly disagrees with the gimmick ending in Lord of the Flies, because he sees it as a false, artificial one.
In other words, Karl accuses Golding of didacticism Karl Karl is right in that in Lord of the flies, once he has shown us his point of view on the matter of human nature, Golding practically cuts the film and stops unnecessary violence from occurring, by bringing the naval officer on the island. In this respect, the ending seems abrupt and unrelated to the veridical tale that aims to change the general belief dermagen anti-imbatranire the innocence of children.
Even if the arrival of the officer seems a tactless turn of events from the part of the author, it is the key to a thorough understanding of the novel. Then, little by little, readers come to wonder if they should indeed regard children as innocent beings.
The fact that readers are shocked when seeing the difference of perspective between Ralph and the other children, on the one hand, and the officer on the other hand proves the artistry of what is written between the first and the last page of the novel. It also proves that Golding was so convinced with the idea of inner evil, that he made sure he can persuade the others too.
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This remark opens a path for archetypal criticism. But how does all this help create the coherent, sad, cynical and at the same time resigned view on man that we are left with at the end of the novel? What does Lord of the Flies really tell us about the world convention dassistance administrative suisse anti aging They are not a convention dassistance administrative suisse anti aging of distinct, real beings.
Therefore, in the course of the analysis, I have tried to follow the development of the archetype of the Self, the way Golding made it obvious in his novel. Actually, we cannot speak of a transformation proper, because what the readers see in the boys as they are depicted on the occasion of their first meeting is, in convention dassistance administrative suisse anti aging fundamental lines, the same as what the readers witness toward the end of the novel.
The purpose of inner development is growing toward whatever the Self rutina anti-imbatranire anii 40 si pantaloni scurti. The genuine psychic transformation comes with the understanding of the inner world, which Simon and Ralph reach, by different means.
The head had been put on a stick, which Jack had told the boys to jam in the mountain rock. Not only does Simon see the head in its form of totemic gift, but he has also witnessed the chopping and decapitation.
As repulsion is mixed with fascination, the Head speaks to Simon and tries to convince him that what he has witnessed is acceptable, normal, and therefore not so outrageous as to determine in him an irreparable act of wonderment. At this point, we may believe that although Simon witnessed the horrible act performed by Jack and the hunters, he remains a stranger to the possibility of doing evil.
Apart from the symbol of the head, Tiger also speaks about the symbol of the island: we come across it in many forms in the novel, and it is associated with another symbol, the ship, with which it shares the more general meaning of something emerging from a mass of a different, hostile matter, being isolated by it.
This is made obvious in the novel by the many references to the rhythm of the waves that draw the dead bodies of the parachutist, of Simon and of Piggy into the depth of the ocean. Reference to this dark rhythm is made in the present analysis, by taking further the hints that have opened convention dassistance administrative suisse anti aging path to the archetypal approach.
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According to Hollinger, Simon is not average, but exceptional, meaning that he has the capacity to understand his own nature, to differentiate and choose between right and wrong- which means that he is able to make value judgements.
Neither is he in the main focus of the narrator. The one whom Golding always keeps within sight is Ralph. Next, he takes action in order to control his evil. As opposed to Tiger, Hollinger makes more reference to Ralph, underlining the importance of his personal experience and suffering that led him to self-knowledge and to the knowledge of the duality of human nature.
Le rituel: ordre et paradoxe (2007). In M. Bulgaru (Ed.), p.308-360.
This duality, this nucleus of opposing concepts can be regarded from the perspective of Jungian theory as the main characteristic of the Self, which exists due to pairs of opposite features. It is, as Tiger pointed out, choosing to act without evil. But what does this mean? Alienation from what is human, as Hollinger puts it, is, in the Jungian perspective, a meaningless phrase.
Certainly, Hollinger refers to the part that exercises a conscious control upon the mind, which is consciousness. Therefore, in Lord of the Flies alienation can be discussed as separation from conscious control, not from what is human, because that which is unconscious and apparently irrational is also characteristically human. To sum up, among literary critics who have written about Lord of the Flies, Frederick R.
Virginia Tiger draws our attention onto the ideographic structure of the novel, which supports the thematic structure and both contains and explains the issue of evil-and-innocence. Alexander Hollinger underlines the theme of alienation in its multiple aspects, and discusses the duality of human nature, man being both heroic and sick.
This is why I find his description of the psyche more inclusive and more capable to explain the strange paradoxes of the Self. Allegory and symbol Lord of the Flies has been variously interpreted, according both to its general meaning and to its detailed content. Related to its general meaning, it was called a fable, an allegory and a myth Hollinger 6while according to its symbols, it has been interpreted as a moral, as a social and as a religious fable Tiger Golding himself calls his novel a fable Hollinger 5.
If one labels Lord of the Flies as allegory, there emerges as the most important aspect the double significance of the work, which is coherent both in its literal and in its ser anti-imbatranire luma meaning Hollinger 6. This is because of its partial adherence to the type of literary works that Jungian criticism is interested in, and because of the note of parody and the dystrophic vein which the author has so skilfully added to it.
Before the analysis proper, I will try to define the notions of allegory and symbol, for they are terms from literary criticism which analytical psychology endows with a different meaning. To a literary critic, allegory is a figure of speech representing convention dassistance administrative suisse anti aging metaphor prolonged in a narrative or in a lyrical form, and conveying an abstract idea Dragomirescu Thus Ralph symbolizes the commonsensical, responsible, civilized man.
Piggy is the embodiment of the potential and daring of intelligence in the human being Cokyll 75 : he is the only one who can think of moving the fire from the mountaintop to the beach when the boys find out that the beast lives on the mountain.
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We could find out how to make a small hot fire and then put green branches on to make smoke. Simon is a symbol of the potential of kindness and psychological insight, Jack stands for the man driven by his thirst for power, self-affirmation and violence, and for the primitive nature of one who personifies and worships what is invincible and infinitely more wicked than him. The saplings of palm trees that run dry because of lack of soil are a symbol of the state in which the boys find themselves on the island, because, had the officer not found them, they too would have died, in the absence of something to sustain them.
In the psychological interpretation, the short-lived saplings show the negative side of the convention dassistance administrative suisse anti aging of the mother.
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Read as a social allegory, it is a story about the regression of a society which changes its structure its main occupation and its range of social roles according to the kind of people that form a majority. As a moral allegory, the novel is about choosing to do right or wrong and the subjective and objective reasons behind the choices. As a psychological allegory, it is a view on what people make of religion and of the divinity when they see them through the veil of their own half obscure personality.
As a religious allegory, it is the story of the Fall of Man. Still in terms of literary criticism, a symbol is a figure of speech expressing an abstract idea by using the name of a concrete object in the real world. The object is easily connected with that particular idea through a certain, obvious feature that they share Dragomirescu The examples above, on what each of the main characters represent, give the symbolic message the author most probably intended to transmit.
They show characters as personified functions.
Abstract and short presentation
Because the symbol can be pinpointed to a steady image, I see it as the static counterpart of allegory. Analytical psychology defines allegory as a paraphrase of a conscious content, and symbol as the most appropriate expression of an idea that is partly reached at by intuition, and that partly remains unconscious Jung, Arhetipurile Golding is an introvert writer, who does not wholly identify with the process of artistic creation.
All the readings of the novel as an allegorical tale can be included here, to the extent to which the author has intended for us to understand all these things from his text and are not all that can be said of its symbolical meaning.
Publicaţia de faţă reflectă numai punctul de vedere al autorilor şi Comisia Europeană nu este responsabilă pentru eventuala utilizare a informaţiilor pe care le conţine. Having observed sharing consular service delivery practice of the EU, the author suggests implementation of effective norms in the practice of CIS. Today s consular offices are operating in a rapidly changing world and the demand for effective consular services is growing with a high tempo. There are several overlapping factors, which are the main reasons for rising demand. First, it is the growing number of travelers and expatriates.
Adding to the somewhat mechanistic use of characters, which arises from the strictly literary definition of allegory, I propose to consider them functions or symbols of psychological processes, and not merely of ideas or comments about life. A symbol, in analytical psychology, is the best possible expression of an unconscious content, of something that has not yet reached consciousness so as to be put into words, but which is experienced as an intuition Jung, Arhetipurile The novel itself may be considered a symbol of the manifestation and fulfilment of the Self.
Their behaviour and decisions are mostly influenced by the collective unconscious in relation to their consciousness, because the consciousness of children is not yet fully differentiated from the unconscious.
The psychological processes of inflation and of individuation show what happens with archetypes once consciousness comes to perceive them.
Archetypes are present both as personifications and as archetypes of transformation as an action, object, form or place. The most important archetype in the novel is the Self, both regarding its function and its recurrence.
Definitions What is unknown about the inner world of the individual, but perceived through his senses, represents the unconscious Jung, Amintiri The collective unconscious is a part of the psyche that can de differentiated from the personal unconscious by its origin.