Parallel to this we tried to introduce Western concepts and fundamental basis of this concept of social psychiatry and resocialization. Thus noasre works have highlighted a number of models of ideology enforced psychiatry who founded the abusive use of psychiatry as a political weapon and repression by the communist regime of Ceausescu.
These are two theoretical models staged mainly by nomenclaturistii representing psychiatry in Bucharest, as I quoted above, the essence of dialectical and historical materialism applied in psychiatry, two models which we present next. A model purely biological - medical model - inherited from classical German psychiatry from the beginning of this century, but will be processed in the manner of Marxist ideology.
A model prison psychiatric treatment institutions to reject psychological and sociological concepts in the field instututiei 63 therapy and treatment. Model was taken also in the history of classical psychiatry psychiatric asylum as an institution specify the Middle Agesand this time suffering a significant "processing" Marxist.
One of communist ideology ambitions have received from the party responsible for psychiatry to manage was to promote in this area and a materialistic view of reality discipline ideological strait-laced in tight patterns of communist ideology. This had created a general concept of disease - a model - to explain simplifying the materialist conception of psychiatry.
Meanwhile, the ideological model, it should be "understandable" to the understanding of party activists, unprofessional, which actually was only able to authenticate ideological purity in all fields, even the most sophisticated professions. For this reason, promoting biological model of mental illness corresponds best simple, understandable and based on biological explanations only, so pure "materialistic".
Although the medical model studio gear revizionist complex anti-imbatranire psychiatric disease was transferred by itself Kraepelin, at the beginning it was just a stage for European psychiatry-up to develop psychological and sociological sciences - and then was dropped in favor of new models which are based 64 psychiatry. Although the model has been copied kraepelinian model is taken from the history of psychiatry and with a certain authority, however, having ideologizarii Marxist model that led to aberrations based psychiatric abuse.
In an ideological system, the model has shown only its negative studio gear revizionist complex anti-imbatranire, that is precisely the reasons for which he had abandoned in the West.
In what the medical model?
As we presented in our papers cited above, the model related to a particular conception occurred in the late nineteenth century and early studio gear revizionist complex anti-imbatranire century, it is considered an individual's behavioral disorders as biological. In such a vision, he became a "sick" depending on the mother's mental state of organic factors, biological, meaning he was a sick, sick ricare tantamount somatic. This was done based on establishing a non-critical way of an analogy between somatic illness-physical, biological or purely studio gear revizionist complex anti-imbatranire, the injury was paramount, and mental illness in the biological factor participate in pathology with psychological factor and office.
The idea of such a relationship between physical and mental agreed but a great party activist in psychiatry and can also be studio gear revizionist complex anti-imbatranire through it's level of understanding mental life 65 substantially that is binding only by biological factors of mental illness. In this context, the body was made as a mechanical structure, and disease, including mental, as a "deterioration" of this mechanism.
Medical model appeared, therefore, somatic medicine as a specific model being implemented in psychiatry, and starts from the simplistic assertion that in fact symptoms of disease are intimately related to anatomical lesions, all explanations of mental illness is confined to physical phenomena, chemicalbiological, genetic, etc.
The model was then built on the knowledge of the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century with mechanistic explanations, mechanics were at that time the most developed part of physics. Dominant philosophy of the era was a mechanistic core. Healing disease studio gear revizionist complex anti-imbatranire not be seen only related physico- chemical factors, factors which could help eliminate internal or external agent, thereby managing to rebalance the body.
It is easy to see that such a simplistic explanation for the current period of development of science has emerged as a real godsend for thinking materialistic rudimentary culturnicului of psychiatry, because the explanations rudimentarismul "materialistic" ideological support he received an undeserved. It is true that the desire to break with obscure statute that we have the beginning of this 66 century psychiatry, the mentally ill to get medical status, parents classical German psychiatry at that time accepted the medical model that you have implemented in psychiatry this represents a real advance for that period, bringing psychiatry and psychiatric medicine in the middle of which was virtually excluded.
Kraepelin introduced the medical model in psychiatry based on the idea of the organic mental diseases, and on that principle of classification consists of classical psychiatry.
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That organic lesions could emphasize major mental illness, he explains the state of the art of that era, that future technical progress will solve. Unfortunately, except luesului meningoencefalitic PGPthis was not possible in any other mental illness, although anatomical study instrumentation became more sophisticated, and the idea was that mental illness organicitatii unreal.
Moreover, targeting the wrong model - the drastic removal of psychological and social factors - has become a serious brake in knowing not only pathological phenomenon in psychiatry, but also for the entire somatic medicine, where over 33 percent of current pathology can not explanation of a narrow and mechanistic thinking that provides the medical model. A big role in sustainability medical model in psychiatry and had his introduction to the psychology, Freud's work grace, whose band medical organicista is well known studio gear revizionist complex anti-imbatranire leading 67 thus to a regrettable analogy between body and mind with absolute assertion, such as under normal and pathological human behavior are "internal causes" involved only organic mental homeostasis appeared on a basis comparable to physical homeostasis and the body is considered a dark energy.
Although visceral antifreudismul of communist ideology solutie anti-imbatranire prin dermatologie ochi well known, the medical model will be better exploited in the field of psychology to the assertion that mind is an extremist secretion of the brain.
After the way psychiatry was applied in the first half of the twentieth century, the medical model is summarized by Purushotton in the three postulates: 1. Any underlying cause is psychological dezadaptare dynamic or energeticbiological and psychological at the same time - this particular under the influence of Freud's psychological studies figure rejected by Marxist ideology. Symptom is a relative value, because biological being the main element.
Diagnosis is a resultant of what behavior shows that the external signs and what the doctor means that from a "renowned theoretical formulation. Although the historical moment that placing medical model has been progress, especially neglect of psychological and social factors leading to psychiatric care organization on the 68 principle of somatic disease hospitals, psychiatric therapy on the somatic copied. Moreover, psychiatric diagnosis and gained disproportionate importance, and lack of ethical criteria opened the door to abuses, including the political.
These inaccuracies have caused in Europe byto defend the application of a permanent decline medical model in psychiatry, psychosomatic medicine and the development of this decline to expand across the field of medicine. For these reasons the communist countries will show their inability to adapt to new concepts of our century, paying a heavy tribute and ideological paranoidismului Concerned only serve to preserve the totalitarian system.
Since its introduction of psychological and sociological concepts, the Western medical model and especially its application in psychiatry will be subject to a concerted attack not only by psychiatrists but also other specialists. There were real gains questioned the medical model eg neurolepticsbut criticized the model as explanatory models of mental illness which only now coming into conflict with the development of many new sciences that have developed in the second practice half of the twentieth century medical psychology, medical sociology, cybernetics, In the field of communist countries, on the 69 contrary, the idea was taken as a medical model of medical doctrine based on psychiatry and what is more important, began to bear ideological improvements to be used as "argument" and a political weapon that proved substantially mental illness and to reject a priori all the psycho-sociological concepts, especially those of Freud.
Ideological aspirations of communist totalitarianism were well served by this model "materialist" model to the understanding of party activists in psychiatry. Coleman and Broen stressed three main points in the critical care model applied in psychiatry: 1. Many abnormal behaviors not imply the existence of anatomical lesions, which is why they can not be judged by the classical model of a somatic disease. There is even the risk of mental illness not only real, but simple deviation from the ethical, legal or social problems sometimes mere existence to be labeled by way of looking at a somatic disease through mandatory existence of anatomical structures damaged.
But in these cases no anatomical lesion is due to diversion of behavior, but rather mechanisms of social learning, the educational system may be wrong, the existence of abnormal social relationships.
Application of medical model in psychiatry urge to produce a momentum composition of the rigid classification of pathology, which is the desire of both greater precision.
How many times does not match an undesirable behavior 70 may occur immediately a new clinical form of disease such as schizophrenia or inaparente's dormant Snejnevski.
But diagnosis is a relative importance in psychiatry, and concepts can be linked to the value of the person diagnosed, while only about anatomy is suspected. For this reason it was enough simply a change of "ethics" - the socialist, for example - because everything in this vision was undesirable pluralism, dissident, needs of individual rights was confused studio gear revizionist complex anti-imbatranire "science" of psychiatry that are based on the medical model of disease and normal behavior in a specific ethical system appear in socialism as "schizophrenia", "paranoid state", "psychopaths.
Concern over this type of "sick" now appear just as a humanitarian action, the regime was forced to protect him hospitalized for both themselves and society because of their disease hazards. Once an individual has been formally declared sick, it must comply with this statute, so the responsibility to give, to give life to face situations, falling into an individual's behavioral patterns actually somatic patients.
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It is clear that attempts 71 resocialization were not even in these cases no sense. From the above we can conclude that applying the medical model in psychiatry has serious implications that we will try to summarize them as follows: 1.
Ideologizarea medical model of psychiatry over the disease from the beginning led to the refusal on ideological grounds, to accept psycho-sociological concepts that have developed in the West and allowed rejection of the principle resocializarii - socialist society was establishing itself as having the role sanogenic, adherence to its principles is the only reason to keep the individual's mental health.
Medical model is expressed in the form of therapeutic practice institutional stereotypes with a hierarchical structure of power which were in fact a mirror image of society that dreamed of communist ideology.
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Thus creating a mental "monolithic" manu-military led by nomenclature, without any chance of evolution, so visible today, when, though the company officially became more pluralistic and democratic psychiatry same system built by the Communists persist stagnant and authoritarian vision so that disease and the patient and the health institution.
The psychiatric hospital was and is organized as a true pyramid, old-style absolutist monarchy. Is headed by the director and department heads, representing the full power 72 and not discuss with anyone. Yes, there were still maintained the old boards and formats, of course, all of them heads of departments. They are the only interlocutors of the Minister or the health department director, the media, of foreigners. They can promote or persecute anyone, without having to studio gear revizionist complex anti-imbatranire explanations.
Practiced since the appointment of department heads without contest or contests fictitious life of their appointment, the office was sometimes sent their children, sometimes even named their flag.
Such a system is autocratic leadership. Studio gear revizionist complex anti-imbatranire individuals are ripped, for decades a real competition to motivate learning, not cursory knowledge of psychology, sociology, psychotherapy. Is beyond any competitive system, they are viscerally opposed to change, their only reason to be representing a system of obedience to the past, from former communist satraps, many of them still on the same functions.
Medical model, although it says it promotes logical and rational origins of mental illness, does not take account of economic structures, social, political, educational and relational reason why the serious consequences of stereotyping therapeutic formulation and research and a poor orientation related problematicele the mental health field. Classifications "accurate" promoted by the medical model are in fact arbitrary, because symptoms, ie behavior, losing importance in 73 favor of causes, unknown - the unsuitable.
For this reason, the trend appears to require hospitalization treatment Long dezantreneaza only individual to social practice and now will come true only adjustment disorders.
Admission will be based on "references" from the outside by virtue of diagnosis - an assessment, an opinion - and only here the situation can become dangerous. This may be because in psychiatric studio gear revizionist complex anti-imbatranire indicates a role for the individual, a certain behavior expectations. From this point of view, according to medical model, diagnosis indicates a specific individual and "norm" of behavior.
But if the patient is hospitalized, he can "borrow" new symptoms, as a behavior of "adjustment" to the psychiatric hospital system.
This long process may end with "accepting" the role that the hospital and prepared. Position saying nosologica clinical, medical model Predescu, Romila, stated that it is actually "dialectical materialism applied in psychiatry, all other concepts must be fought and considered dangerous: psychoanalysis, resocialization psychology faculties of medicine in the medical curriculum.
Unfortunately, anything I say does not belong only to the past.
Refusing to "social context" and only as a thinking man law-abiding car physicochemical communist ideology actually wanted to make mentally ill as "culpable only for his suffering: 74 heredity, life, etc. Thus, socialist society was deculpabilizata and was not obliged to engage too much in therapy, especially in the act of prevention.
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Moreover, even ideological rules expected to decline continuously until the disappearance of mental illness, the crime in communist society, because private property disappeared, it disappeared because of all evil. But until then, had to defend the socialist society, and this, as said Ceausescu had done with straitjacket. An fiole vichy antirid system azilar had to defend society from "dangerous" mentally ill.
In fact, it was of interest not only real patient situation who lived in the stablesbut also political opposition.
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For over seven decades, psychiatry has remained communist countries - that evolution - in the biological psychiatry, as it was in the West at the beginning. Now trying to use some of the communist ideology DSM-American sites, they forget to emphasize conventional value of these classifications, but mostly looking to explain the ideological and psychopathology and that has led Americans to reach the convention by the DSM classification.
While courses are based on crema eficienta antirid pentru barbati DSM G. Ionescuthey can not explain the psychological and social psychiatry underlying these classifications.
When you want to try their works all G. Ionescu, but A. Romila, as their master, Predescua methodology do after years 75which should add only their lack of knowledge even in classical psychiatrythat even that which one might think that a minister.
Trying tricks like in November last, it is no wonder that the current "scientific leadership" of our psychiatry, in fact, want concealed normal stages of development of psychiatry - biological phase, followed by psychological and social.
In essence, promoting the medical model of communist ideology, accredited in our country only to biological psychiatry affect the system, studio gear revizionist complex anti-imbatranire our opinion, these "benefits" - Simplistic and mechanistic nature of the concept made it possible to promote an understanding of the vulgar materialism Party activist; communist society are best served by the medical model; - Declared sick, the individual will be treated in hospitals under azilare which gradually will take more than appearance image and likeness prison company in existence.
Elimination of physical and social causality excludes essentially socio-prophylactic.